Chronic Pain Video

Knee Pain, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

This video describes painful conditions associated with the knee, the etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests and special maneuvers, and treatment options.
Common knee problems:
Patellar chondromalacia
•chronic pain due to softening of the cartilage beneath the kneecap.
•Chronic knee pain from mild to complete erosion of the cartilage in the back of the kneecap.
•Pain in the front of the knee.
•Occurs more in young people.
•Becomes worse from climbing up and down the stairs.
•Treatment: usually therapy, NSAIDS.
Patellar bursitis
•Pain and inflammation located in the front of the kneecap.
•The bursa becomes inflamed and fills with fluid at the top of the knee.
•Causes pain, swelling, tenderness and a lump in the area on top of the kneecap.
Ligament injury
Lateral collateral ligament rupture: usually occurs as a result of sports activities.
Medial collateral ligament rupture: injury to the ligament on the inner part of the knee. The most commonly injured knee ligament.
Anterior cruciate ligament tear:
•involves a valgus stress to the knee.
•Usually the patient will have swelling and hematoma.
•Lachman’s test is positive.
•MRI is diagnostic.
Patellar tendonitis
•Inflammation and pain located inferior to the knee cap area.
Meniscal Tear
•Meniscus is a cushion that protects the cartilage of the knee.
•Injury will cause pain on the medial or lateral side of the knee.
•Outer 30% of meniscus has blood supply.
•MacMurray’s test is positive.
•History of locking, swelling and instability of the knee.
•MRI is helpful.
Arthritis of the knee joint
•Characterized by progressive wearing away of the cartilage of the joint.
•The knee is a common part of the body that is most affected by arthritis.
•Decreased joint space.
Baker’s cyst
•Swelling in the back of the knee filled with synovial fluid.
•Cyst between the semimembranosus and medial gastrocnemius muscles.
•Type of arthritis or joint inflammation caused by an excessive level of uric acid in the blood.
•Can affect any joint especially the big toe.
•Crystals look like needles and have a negative birefringence.